Niobium Pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula Nb2O5. It is used mainly in the production of capacitors, lithium niobate, and optical glass.
It has many polymorphic forms all based largely on octahedrally coordinated niobium atoms. The polymorphs are identified with a variety of prefixes. The form most commonly encountered is monoclinic H-Nb2O5 which has a complex structure, with a unit cell containing 28 niobium atoms and 70 oxygen, where 27 of the niobium atoms are octahedrally coordinated and one tetrahedrally. There is an un-characterized solid hydrate Nb2O5.nH2O, so-called niobic acid which can be prepared by hydrolysis of a basic solution of niobium pentachloride or Nb2O5 dissolved in HF.
Thin films of Nb2O5 form the dielectric layers in solid electrolyte capacitors and these layers can be grown electrolytically on sintered bodies containing niobium monoxide.
Niobium pentoxide is used mainly in the production of capacitors, lithium niobate, and optical glass.